Has Jack Ogden weighed in on the matter of lost wax casting? His
book, Jewellery of the Ancient World, (ISBN 08478 0444 5) (1982) is
great on ancient jewelry and techniques (also, great pictures).
The best book on ancient techniques (IMO) is one with very few
pictures, P. R. S. Moorey, Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and
Industries (1994; reissued by Eisenbrauns in Winona Lake, Indiana).
In ancient Iraq, lost wax casting goes back to at least the 4th
millennium BC (see pp. 269ff.), although the earliest and most
stupendous hoard of copper and copper alloy artifacts done by
lost-wax casting was found in a cave on the shores of the Dead Sea
at Nahal Mishmar, in Israel (p. 257), dating to around 3600 BC.
Hollow castings were done in at least the 3rd millennium BC in
Mesopotamia, and piece-molds are also known.
Regarding an earlier thread on casting pure copper, it was certainly
done in Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq), even large statues.
Casting was also done in molds, especially clay, and sand-casting
was known. Sand-casting may have been the method used by Scythian
jewelers, in which a model is pressed into prepared sand. For
details from Mesopotamia, see M. Muller-Karpe, “Der Guss in der
Verlorenen Sandform in Mesopotamien,” MDOG 122 (1990): 173-192.
As you can see, ancient metalworking is a subject dear to my heart!