Amber : Composition : carbon + hydrogen + oxygen, the chimical
structure is not consistent so its formula can be slightly
Refractive index : 1.54
Specific gravity : 1.05 - 1.10
Hardness : 2 - 2.5
Luminescence : bluish white under LW UV, greenish under SW UV.
Amber will soften at 150 - 180C and will melt around 250 -
300C. Varieties : ranging from near white (osseous) to lemon ,
golden, yellow, redish-brown, brown and black, and sometimes blue
and green. The possible causes of the blue or green amber are :
the penetration of raw resin by certain mineral deposits that
were originally in the soil it fell into, or
the settlement of volcanic ash and dust onto the resin when it
was first secreted. In any of the changes, the resin acquires its
special colour due to the permeation of non original compounds.
- clarified : cloudy anber is heated in rapeseed oil.
- pressed : small pieces of amber are heated and compressed.
- stained : from yellow-brown to red, or to obtain other colours,