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Wavy metal after rolling

If you follow these ‘rules’, your sheet will probably come out
straight, even on a small mill…:-)…:

  1. Mark one end of the piece to be rolled. If it is an ingot or
    sheet, best to mark by a file mark or saw mark so it won’t get
    erased. ALWAYS put the marked end in first so the piece is always
    being rolled in the same direction!!! (Only)After annealing, you can
    change the direction of the roll.

  2. Anneal often.

  3. Take small bites.

  4. After rolling through, flip the piece over and roll a second time
    on the same bite! Make sure the marked end still leads! The second
    time through straightens out any curving.

  5. The same side should not be facing up every time the bite is

  6. A summary of 4 plus 5: Decrease bite; roll thru with side A up;
    roll thru again but with side B up; decrease bite; roll thru with
    side B up; roll through again but with side A up; decrease bite;
    roll through with side A up; etc. ALWAYS put the marked end through

If you follow these rules, any curving should get flattened out as
you go along. Waving is a pile-up of curving. you should never get
to that stage. Also note that bigger mills have a flat table on the
exit end where the sheet comes out of the rolls. This of course
helps considerably in keeping sheet flat.

Hope this helps.
Janet in Jerusalem