There's no specific name for this technique of enameling, every enamelist I've met called it splatter as well :). For tableware I was taught to use a toothbrush that's been dipped in liquid enamel. I find that depending on how much you thin out the enamel you can differentiate the size splatter. I don't see why this technique couldn't be applied to jewelry. It will take some experimentation, looking forward to seeing what you coke up with.
Below is one of mine using the toothbrush method.