For those interested in the history of ancient metalworking, here is
the abstract of a paper being given soon in Basel, Switzerland, on a
very early example of cloisonne.
Gold Cloisonne from the Assyrian Colony Penad in Central
Turkey/Japan - Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology,
A unique example of a gold cloisonne object dating to the 19th c.
BCE was discovered in the Kaman-Kalehoyiik excavations in Central
Anatolia. The gold object (KL10-1) was unearthed in Room 409 that
has been identified as a workshop dating to the Period of the
Assyrian Trade Colonies by the Japanese Institute of Anatolian
Archaeology. Initial reconstruction reveals a lion rearing up on
its hind legs. A row of tubular stringing holes at top and
bottom, the empty cloisons, and the unchased gold surface suggest
an unfinished arm band, bracelet, or belt ornament. The gold is
0.5 mm thick and weighs 104 grams. The iconography and function
of the artifact as well as the analysis by XRF and other
techniques of the metal composition and method of manufacture
(hammering, casting, diffusion bonding or soldering to create the
cloisons) will be presented. Technological parallels of
contemporaneous Egyptian Middle Kingdom jewelry consist of a gold
cloisonne pectoral (ECM 1585) in the collection of Eton College
and gold plaque (Carter no. 585) from King Tutankhaman’s tomb.
Similar Assyrian iconographic motifs have been recovered in seals
at Kaman-Kalehoyiik. Such gold find is unparalleled in Central
Anatolia to date.