Those hurricanes make our tornados looke kinda' puny. Then to have so many hit the area is an extra whammy. Sympathies to all who are affected, and I know that is many thousands of people.
Anyway, my day job for over 20 years was public environmental health assessments - commonly called a health inspector. There are several common liquids known to be effective at sanitizing (deactivating microbes) - bleach, alcohol, and Quaternary Ammonia. Based on that experience, instead of bleach, I would recommend a sanitizing solution of quaternary ammonia, commonly called "quat". ("Quat" is a different chemical than the ammonia we usually use to clean up polishing compound.)
You want a household cleaner with a label that says something like "multi-surface antibacterial". They usually have some sort of soap/detergent and/or surfactant. Look for ingredients ending in "Dimethyl Ammonium CHloride". There are likely to be at least three listed at somewhere around 0.013% - 0.026%. The pH of the one I use is 9 - which is about the same as most soaps or detergents.
Another alternative which will have a more neutral pH is to purchase a sanitizer concentrate at Costco or Sam's. Commercial kitchens use this in place of bleach. Wash the jewelry with what ever soap you usually use to remove dirt and debris. Follow the instructions on the label to mix the sanitizer to the proper strength and allow items to sit in contact with the solution for at least 60 seconds, followed by air drying. That information is likely to be included on the label. One gallon of the concentrate will make many, many gallons of sanitizer. This sanitizer is safe enough to use on eating utensils.
Always to be safe, you should subject a delicate stone (a trash pearl, turquoise, coral, opal, etc.) to a couple minutes in the sanitizer. I don't think there is any danger of harming a stone, but safe is always better than sorry.
Judy in Kansas, who has dealt with the aftermath of flooding and it ain't party, plus it stinks. Best of luck for the hard work ahead.